Socio-Economic Problems
of the Modern Period of Ukraine

Lyakhovska (Skaletska) Olena Vasylivna

Lyakhovska (Skaletska) Olena Vasylivna

Ph.D. of Economics

Senior Researcher of the Department of problems of the real sector of regions' economy of the Dolishniy Institute of Regional Research of NAS of Ukraine




Lyakhovska, O. V. (2023). Suchasnyy stan i problemy funktsionuvannya metalurhiynykh pidpryyemstv Ukrayiny [The current state and problems of functioning of metallurgical enterprises in Ukraine]. In Sotsial'no-ekonomichni problemy suchasnoho periodu Ukrayiny [Socio-Economic Problems of the Modern Period of Ukraine]: Vol. 159 (1) (pp. 35-40). DOI: [in Ukrainian].

UDC 338.45; 658.1; JEL D20, F23, G38, M21, O19
Lyahovska, O. (2021). Mistse ta rol' korporatsiy u vitchyznyanomu mashynobuduvanni [The place and role of corporations in domestic machine building]. In Sotsial'no-ekonomichni problemy suchasnoho periodu Ukrayiny [Socio-Economic Problems of the Modern Period of Ukraine]: Vol. 151 (5) (pp. 3-8). DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 7

The main trends in the development of machine-building enterprises in Ukraine are studied. The research proves that large and medium-sized machine-building enterprises sell more products, and the level of profitability of their activities is higher than that of small enterprises. These trends are due, in particular, to the fact that large and medium-sized machine-building enterprises could provide greater funding for the production and development of technical and technological processes, the creation of research units and diversification of markets through international trade and more. A decrease in investment in the development of domestic machine-building industries and a decrease in the share of machine building in investment financing of the industrial sector of the economy are revealed. The paper specifies that in recent years, international corporations, which have established their subsidiaries and production units in Ukraine, have started to play a significant role in the structure of machine-building industries. The share of TNCs in machine-building industries is determined. In particular, the paper shows that in 2020, about 18 subsidiaries of well-known world manufacturers of machine-building products were active, producing 10.45% of sold machine-building products in Ukraine. Such companies involved 10.32% of mechanical engineering workers in general, and the wage bill was 12.45%. The production specialization of machine-building TNCs is outlined. These are mostly intermediate manufacturers engaged in the manufacture of individual components for leading automotive companies. The research emphasizes that the vast majority of machine-building TNCs in Ukraine operate on tolling schemes. Foreign companies are the consumers of TNCs' final products. Accordingly, the share of such products in the Ukrainian export of mechanical engineering is also quite high. This primarily applies to the production of electrical machines (subgroup 85). The expediency of the development of domestic industries to strengthen their competitive position in domestic and foreign markets is emphasized. 
machine building industry, corporations, multinational companies, investments, tolling 

UDC 332.12:[338.45:621](477); JEL E23, L23, L52, M11, R19
Lyahovska, O. (2021). Rehional'na struktura mashynobuduvannya v Ukrayini: suchasni tendentsiyi zmin [Regional structure of mechanical engineering in Ukraine: current trends of change]. In Sotsial'no-ekonomichni problemy suchasnoho periodu Ukrayiny [Socio-Economic Problems of the Modern Period of Ukraine]: Vol. 147 (1) (pp. 40-44). DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 6

The main development tendencies of machine-building production in the regions of Ukraine are examined. The paper reveals that almost all oblasts were characterized by a slowdown and uneven growth rate of machine-building production. The regional structure in terms of sales, exports, and imports of engineering products is determined. The imbalance between production and foreign trade in the regions is pointed out. Thus, the main part of machine-building industries is concentrated in the Eastern regions of Ukraine, which is due to a well-developed raw material base, established production capacity, the presence of research institutions, etc. Instead, the Western regions were the largest exporters of machine-building products among the regions, which is due to the high share of toll raw materials in machine-building production. The regional structure of mechanical engineering by types of activity is determined. The paper emphasizes that in the last years (2014-2019), production of machinery and equipment not included in other groups (33.13% of sold mechanical engineering products in 2019) was the most important sector of mechanical engineering in terms of the structure of sold products. At the same time, the production of other vehicles accounted for 25.74%, the production of motor vehicles, trailers, and semi-trailers – 1 6.05%, the production of electrical equipment – 18.22%, the production of computers, electronic, and optical products – 6.86% of sales of mechanical engineering products. The paper detects the main problems of the machine-building industry raising under the influence of external and internal factors, in particular, political and economic instability, anti-epidemic measures (due to COVID-19), low level of innovation, and obsolescence of technological base of production, etc. The directions of development of machine-building productions in the regions of Ukraine are offered, for example, to develop the mechanism of preferential lending for modernization of production, to increase the state financing of research institutes, etc. 
machine building, industrial production index, sales volume, export, import, regional structure 

UDC 339.5:[338.45:637.5]; JEL F14, F20, L14, L66, Q17
Lyahovska, O. (2020). Zovnishnya torhivlya Ukrayiny m’yasom i m’yasnymy produktamy: tendentsiyi ta heohrafichni aspekty [Ukraine’s foreign trade in meat and meat products: trends and geographical aspects]. In Sotsial'no-ekonomichni problemy suchasnoho periodu Ukrayiny [Socio-Economic Problems of the Modern Period of Ukraine]: Vol. 143 (3) (pp. 48-52). DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 6

Current trends in meat and meat products exports are considered. The dynamics and structural changes in meat exports by types and degree of processing (beef and veal, pork, poultry, finished meat products) are analyzed. The paper proves that in recent years, only meat and edible poultry by-products have taken a competitive position in the world market. Accordingly, the dynamics of exports of this type of meat is positive, and the share of these products in the structure of exported meat is the largest (86.09%). Possible threats to the growth of import dependence on certain types of meat products, in particular, chilled and frozen beef and veal, pork, are indicated. The rating of the largest countries-importers of meat and meat products (by types) from Ukraine is built, their share in the structure of meat exports is determined. Changes in the geographical structure of exports have been studied, which indicate a low level of diversification of the geography of exports of certain types of meat (pork, beef). At the same time, a positive development of the geographical structure of poultry meat exports (exported to more than 100 countries) was revealed. Problems of the export potential development in the meat industry of Ukraine are revealed. In particular, the problems of livestock development (outdated technologies and production techniques that reduce the efficiency and productivity; inefficiency of the organization of purchase and processing of meat, which leads to reduced breeding in small businesses and households; inefficiency of state incentives, etc.) and industrial meat production (lack of raw materials, obsolescence of fixed assets and production technologies, poorly developed logistics, etc.). The solution of these problems requires: a systematic approach, which will encourage the cooperation of agricultural and industrial production, cooperation with importers of meat products and protection of domestic producers in the domestic and international markets, creating a favorable investment and information environment that will promote the meat industry development. 
meat and meat production, foreign trade, export, import, coverage ratio, geographical structure of export 

UDC 332.1; 633.1; JEL E23, L16, L60, L66, Q11, R11
Lyakhovska, O. (2019). Tendentsiyi vyrobnytstva ta pererobky zerna v rehionakh Ukrayiny [Tendencies of grain production and processing in the regions of Ukraine]. In Sotsial'no-ekonomichni problemy suchasnoho periodu Ukrayiny [Socio-Economic Problems of the Modern Period of Ukraine]: Vol. 138 (4) (pp. 57-61). DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 5

The volumes and changes in grain production in the regions of Ukraine are analyzed. The grain production volumes are revealed to have increased by 11.11% in 2013-2018. Poltava, Vinnytsia and Chernihiv regions were the leaders among the regions, where they produced about 24.5% of the total grain in Ukraine. The paper determines that high levels of grain production have led to an oversaturation of the domestic market and increased exports of this product. At the same time, the volumes and growth rates of wheat or wheat-rye flour, which is the basis of deep processing, decreased. The production of this grain processing product is concentrated in Vinnytsia, Kharkiv, Kyiv, Dnipropetrovsk and Khmelnytsky regions. In total, more than 50% of flour from the total production in Ukraine were produced in these regions in 2018. According to trends in grain production and its processing, regions of Ukraine are grouped into: regions with high levels of grain production and processing (Vinnytsia, Kharkiv, Kyiv, Dnipropetrovsk and Khmelnytsky); regions with high levels of grain production and low volumes of its processing (Poltava, Chernihiv, Cherkasy, Sumy, Odesa, Kirovohrad oblasts); regions with a tendency to increase the volumes of grain processing (Zhytomyr, Lviv and Volyn oblasts); regions that increase grain production, but the volume of its processing decreases (Ternopil, Kherson, Zaporizhia, Rivne and Ivano-Frankivsk and Mykolaiv); regions with a tendency to decrease the volume of grain production and processing (Donetsk, Luhansk, Zakarpattya and Chernivtsi regions. The ways of further development of these regions in terms of grain production and processing are suggested. The following measures will contribute to consolidation of positive trends in grain production: updating of technological support of grain production in order to reduce its cost and increase the opportunities for creating an ecological product that will be competitive in the world market; increase of elevator capacity, which will prevent the risk of losses due to poor storage of products. 
grain production, grain processing, flour milling, grain products, grain exports 

UDC 332.1:658; JEL D20, R13
Lyakhovska, O. V. (2018). Otsinka pokaznykiv diyal'nosti khimichnykh pidpryyemstv Zakhidnoho rehionu Ukrayiny [Estimation of activity indicators of chemical enterprises in the Western region of Ukraine]. In Sotsial'no-ekonomichni problemy suchasnoho periodu Ukrayiny [Socio-Economic Problems of the Modern Period of Ukraine]: Vol. 133 (5) (pp. 33-36). Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 13

The general description of the chemical industry enterprises in the Western region is given. The paper reveals that the main part of the chemical industry enterprises of the region accounts for the enterprises producing basic chemical products, fertilizers and nitrogen compounds, plastics and synthetic rubber in primary forms (40%). The largest chemical enterprises are: LLC «Karpatnaftokhim» – the only Ukrainian producer of ethylene, propylene, benzene, C9 fractions, polyethylene, as well as caustic soda and suspension polyvinyl chloride; PJSC «Rivneazot» is one of the largest producers of mineral fertilizers and adipic acid in Ukraine. Their share in the volume of sold chemicals and chemical products in the region is about 87%. A general description of the activity of these enterprises is given. The activity of the chemical industry enterprises of the developing region is described: LLC «KarpatSmoly» is one of the largest manufacturers of low-toxic resins in Ukraine (U-type carbamide-formaldehyde resins of types E-1, ? E-1 and E-0 and melamine resins UMF, MUF, MF); Polikom Ltd. – is engaged in the development of compositions based on PVC, the production of commercial PVC-plastisols and decorative granulates for the production of wallpaper, linoleum, artificial leather, LLC Polikem – produces plasticizers of five types (dioctyl phthalate, dioctyladipinate, diisodecyladipinate, dibutylmalainate, dizononyl phthalate); Zhivitsa Plus Ltd – specializes in the production of low-toxic aminometallergic resins; PJSC «Lviv Chemical Plant» is the only producer of technical gases in the Western Ukraine. The basic problems of the development of chemical industry enterprises in the Western region are revealed, in particular: environmental problems, the need to promote the development of raw materials, the organization of new industries and others. In order to provide more efficient work of chemical industry enterprises, it is proposed to gradually modernize equipment, introduce innovative technological processes, and apply more energy-saving methods of production. The fact that these measures will contribute to satisfying market demand, expanding the range of products and increasing the competitiveness of enterprises on the world market of chemical products is emphasized. 
chemical industry, chemical industry enterprises, chemical production, volume of chemicals sold and chemical products 

UDC 330.3;658.1;JELС42,О30,L80,R11
Lyakhovska, O. (2018). Rehional'ni aspekty innovatsiynoyi diyal'nosti promyslovykh pidpryyemstv [Regional aspects of innovative activity of industrial businesses]. In Sotsial'no-ekonomichni problemy suchasnoho periodu Ukrayiny [Socio-Economic Problems of the Modern Period of Ukraine]: Vol. 131 (3) (pp. 55-59). Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 5

Industry, a technically developed branch of material production, especially requires the use of innovative developments, therefore, there is a need for continuous stimulation of scientific and technological process and ensuring the implementation of innovative industrial projects. The article investigates the current state of innovations at industrial enterprises in the regions of Ukraine. Progress of industrial innovations trends is analyzed. On this basis the fact that realization of industrial products has grown in the last few years, and the share and volume of the realized innovative products has diminished is proven. Zaporizka, Donetska and Kharkivska oblasts were the leaders by the volumes of the realized innovative products, but the largest share of innovations accounted for Sumska, Zakarpatska and Donetska oblasts. So, the concentration of industry in a region doesn’t answer the level of input of innovations. It is set that repressing introduction of industrial innovations for enterprises is typical for the regions of Ukraine, as such projects need the less financing. At the same time, such innovations have less value, because they do not bring in a novelty in industry overall. Amount of industrial enterprises of Ukraine that have introduced innovations new for a market remains very low (in 2016 out of 632 enterprises that had introduced industrial innovations, only 182 had been realizing new for a market innovative products). By the amount of enterprises that had realized innovative for a market products, Kharkivska, Zaporizka and Lvivska oblasts were the leaders among the regions. As a result of research, principal reasons of poor development of industrial innovations in regions are outlined (high cost of scientific development, shortage of professional staff, availability of crediting, lack of information, etc) and the fact that majority of them are based on the absence of financing is proven. Self-finance of innovative activity of industrial enterprises prevails in all regions of Ukraine. Therefore, the ways of stimulation of financing of industrial innovations are offered in regions. In particular, to increase self-finance of innovative projects by means of creation of growth funds; to stimulate attraction of foreign investments in industrial innovations on macro- and microlevels; to develop the informative maintenance in relation to introduction of innovations in industry. 
industrial innovations, industrial product, portion of industrial innovations, sources of innovation financing, industrial innovations self financing 


Ishchuk, S. O., & Lyahovska, O. V. (2020). Rozvytok molokopererobnykh vyrobnytstv u rehionakh Ukrayiny: syrovynnyy aspekt [Development of dairy productions in the regions of Ukraine: raw material aspect]. Rehional’na ekonomika – Regional Economy, 95(1), 42-51. DOI: [in Ukrainian]. {sep2021.01.003.016}

Ishchuk, S. O., & Lyakhovska, O. V. (2020). Rozvytok ahropererobnykh vyrobnytstv u rehionakh Ukrayiny [Development of agro-processing industries in the regions of Ukraine: raw material aspects]. Lviv: Dolishniy Institute of Regional Research of NAS of Ukraine. (Series «Regions: monitoring, forecasts, models»). [in Ukrainian]. {sep2022.04.007.004}

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