Socio-Economic Problems
of the Modern Period of Ukraine

Soc-Econ-Problems_MPU -- Year 2022, Vol 4(156)

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Economics and National Economy Management

UDC 339.138; JEL M31, M39, L31
Bilyk, I. (2022). Kraudfandynhovi platformy yak instrument dodatkovoho finansuvannya neprybutkovykh orhanizatsiy [Crowdfunding platforms as a tool for additional financing of non-profit organizations]. In Sotsial'no-ekonomichni problemy suchasnoho periodu Ukrayiny [Socio-Economic Problems of the Modern Period of Ukraine]: Vol. 156 (4) (pp. 3-6). DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 10

The article analyzes crowdfunding as the method of innovative solutions outsourcing as well as the main tool of fundraising for non-profit organizations in terms of developing IT technologies and global access to Internet networks. Crowdfunding opens prospects for non-profit organizations in the mobilization of tangible and intangible resources under the circumstances of rapidly growing competitive markets. The development of information technologies and computer networks gives an opportunity to create new forms of financing as well as promote projects that allow connecting with like-minded people around the world. Moreover, it facilitates fundraising coordination. Crowdfunding, due to its online form, conducts its activities through social network sites and specialized crowdfunding platforms. The latter gives its users an opportunity to carry out financial collections in order to cover the budget of the corresponding project. Such ideas of financing are based on the presentation of the beneficiary’s project and idea to Internet users via one of the crowdfunding platforms, where the amount needed is indicated for the implementation of the project and the duration of the collection. The phenomenon of crowdfunding platforms is considered as fundraising for projects, which are performed by non-profit organizations due to a big number of payments from donors interested in a project. In other words, it is a form of financing of different types of projects by both local and global communities using advertising and specialized Internet portals. Crowdfunding platforms, as the new alternative of financing for non-profit organizations, can be used in many different ways, however, not all companies, as well as projects, fit into that. Fundamental principles of crowdfunding include openness, accessibility, progressiveness, and truthfulness of the information. The situation in the Ukrainian market of crowdfunding platforms was investigated and some of its functioning attributes were revealed: crowdfunding, if used strategically, helps non-profit organizations reach interaction, informs about jobs, shares messages about the organization, and expands a donor base in order to increase general funding. Therefore, non-profit organizations which activities are related to crowdfunding win due to popularization, advocacy, and increasing trust in crowdfunding platforms. It serves as a fundraising method for a wide range of stakeholders, including beneficiaries, board members, employees, and donors. 
crowdfunding, fundraising, non-profit organizations, social networks, crowdfunding platforms 

UDC 339.565+339.562(477); JEL F14
Ishchuk, S., & Protseviat, O. (2022). Diahnostyka transformatsiy u tovarnomu eksporti rehioniv pid vplyvom povnomasshtabnoyi rosiys'ko-ukrayins'koyi viyny [Diagnostics of transformations in regions’ commodity export under the influence of full-scale Russian-Ukrainian war]. In Sotsial'no-ekonomichni problemy suchasnoho periodu Ukrayiny [Socio-Economic Problems of the Modern Period of Ukraine]: Vol. 156 (4) (pp. 7-13). DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 8

The Ukrainian economy is traditionally export-oriented – the export share of goods and services in GDP (in actual prices) was 40.6% in 2021, and in GVA – more than 45 %. The military aggression of the russian federation against Ukraine has actualized the problematic topic of strengthening the domestic export potential to ensure the proper level of socio-economic development. Therefore, the Government has announced an orientation towards the export model of the national economy’s growth – the goal has been set to increase the share of exports in GDP up to 50%. The purpose of the article is to assess the dynamics and directions of the structural transformations in the commodity exports of Ukrainian regions under the influence of armed aggression by the russian federation. The authors conduct an express diagnosis of export-import operations in Ukraine in the conditions of a full-scale russian-Ukrainian war. The export activity at the meso level is analyzed based on the calculation of indicators that characterize: the export coverage level of imports, the commodity export orientation of the economy, the degree of technological export, and the high-tech export orientation of industry. Attention is focused on a significant share of toll manufacturing products in the high-tech commodity exports of the vast majority of the Western regions. Based on the structural assessment of the commodity exports of Ukraine and its regions, changes in the export specialization of the latter ones by main commodity groups are defined. Key trends and problems in the formation and development of Ukraine's export potential in the face of external challenges and threats are outlined. Measures for the implementation of an effective state policy for domestic export stimulation are offered, and their target orientations from the standpoint of national interest protection are defined. The need for a large-scale import substitution program initially focused on investment stimulation in the processing industries where Ukraine has sufficient raw materials potential for their development (agro-processing and production of finished metal products) is emphasized. Further establishment of the production of goods with high added value will allow changing the product structure of Ukrainian exports toward the increase in the finished products’ share of processing industries and mechanical engineering. 
export, import, structure, products, commodity group, specialization, technological degree, regions 

Transborder Cooperation

UDC 338:656.1/.5; JEL L92, L98, H54
Prytula, Kh., Kalat, Ya., & Kyryk, I. (2022). Rozvytok mul'tymodal'nykh perevezen' v Ukrayini v umovakh hlobal'nykh transformatsiy svitovoyi torhivli [The development of multimodal transportation in Ukraine in the conditions of global trade transformations]. In Sotsial'no-ekonomichni problemy suchasnoho periodu Ukrayiny [Socio-Economic Problems of the Modern Period of Ukraine]: Vol. 156 (4) (pp. 14-21). DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 12

The war of the russian federation against Ukraine has provoked the emergence of new challenges and threats to global security, including social and food-, energy-, and logistics-related ones, etc. Therefore, the geography, structure, and logistics of world trade have undergone significant changes and continue to transform in the face of today's challenges. Ukraine, being an important exporter of agricultural products located at the crossroads of the main trade routes Europe-Asia, must adapt to the new realities of the development of the international freight transportation market. Currently, the capacity of the Ukraine-EU border section does not meet modern needs and challenges due to insufficient capacity of transport systems, checkpoints, lack of rolling stock, storage and transshipment terminals, etc., both in Ukraine and in the EU. The development of multimodal transport in Ukraine, including the necessary infrastructure (intermodal terminals, container warehouses, etc.), and the expansion of the list of transport and logistics services are among the ways to solve this problem. The article analyzes the dynamics and structure of international and transit cargo transportation across the customs border of Ukraine in 2014 - 8 months of 2022. The main trends in the passage of vehicles through the Ukraine-EU customs border for January-August 2022 compared to the same period last year are given. Attention is focused on a significant increase in the load of road transport on the customs land border of Ukraine in 2022. Prospects for increasing freight traffic on the Ukraine-EU border in the short-term and long-term perspectives are assessed. The terminology of the study of multimodal transportation in Ukraine is clarified. The peculiarities of the operation of the largest container terminals of Ukraine are studied. Improvement of the state border crossing infrastructure, in particular in terms of increasing the throughput capacity of the Ukraine-EU customs border, should include optimization and stimulation of rail freight transportation, restoration and increase of production capacities for cargo handling of railway terminals, development of a network of intermodal and transshipment terminals, creation of border "dry ports" and cross-border logistics hubs with the introduction of joint control by the authorities of neighboring countries, and simplification of border crossing procedures for multimodal and contrail transportation. 
international and transit freight transportation, multimodal transportation, transport terminals, container terminals, Ukraine 

Environmental Policy and Nature Management

UDC 338.48:332.1; JEL B40, L83, O18
Zhuk, P. (2022). Otsinyuvannya konkurentospromozhnosti turystychno-rekreatsiynoyi sfery rehionu: naukovi pidkhody [Assessing the competitiveness of the tourism and recreation industry in a region: scientific approaches]. In Sotsial'no-ekonomichni problemy suchasnoho periodu Ukrayiny [Socio-Economic Problems of the Modern Period of Ukraine]: Vol. 156 (4) (pp. 22-28). DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 21

The article addresses the widespread presence of the tourism and recreation industry as one of the priority objectives of the Ukrainian regions’ development strategies at the lack of tools to assess its competitiveness. It dwells on the issues of methodology and techniques to assess the competitiveness of the tourism and recreation industry in a region. The features of the concept of competitiveness with regard to the tourism and recreation industry and its regional systems are examined. The reasonability of integrating the concepts of sectoral and regional competitiveness at its assessment at the regional level is emphasized, and the suggested interpretations of these concepts are analyzed. The article analyzes the studies related to the assessment of the competitiveness of the tourism and recreation industries of the countries and regions worldwide, namely, the methodological grounds and techniques for calculating the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI). The position of Ukraine in the rankings of the 2019 Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index issued by the World Economic Forum and the values of some estimation parameters are determined. Low ranking positions of Ukraine by the assessment of natural resources, environmental, civil, and social security, and business environment are emphasized. These factors are of utmost importance for the development of the tourism and recreation industry in the country and, in fact, are the decisive ones for international competitiveness of the country and its regions. The differences in the assessment of the competitiveness of the tourism and recreation industries of the regions on the global and national scales are outlined. The author makes conclusions regarding the possibility to use the TTCI methodology to assess the competitiveness of the tourism and recreation industries in the regions of Ukraine, albeit with the need to adjust the indicators of assessment parameters based on the use of expert evaluations and taking into account the peculiarities of the domestic statistics system and the pursuit of the minimization of the assessment subjectivity. 
competitiveness, tourism and recreation industry, region, assessment, methods, parameters 

UDC 338.242.002.8:628.477:330.837; JEL O13, Q21, Q24, R14
Kolodiychuk, I. (2022). Instytutsiynyy komponent systemy upravlinnya vidkhodamy [Institutional component of the waste management system]. In Sotsial'no-ekonomichni problemy suchasnoho periodu Ukrayiny [Socio-Economic Problems of the Modern Period of Ukraine]: Vol. 156 (4) (pp. 29-33). DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 6

The article argues that the term «management» is also used to denote the characteristics of organizational and administrative activities of executive authorities and local self-government and is defined as the process of planning, organization, motivation, and control necessary to formulate and achieve the system's goals. In this context, the following goals of waste management are specified: implementation of legislation, control over compliance with environmental safety requirements, ensuring the implementation of effective and comprehensive measures in the context of compliance with the hierarchy of waste, rational use of natural resources, achieving the coordination of state and public entities’ actions in waste management. The relevance of this issue for Ukraine is determined both by its integration into European structures and by the need to improve the waste management system, in particular at the regional level. The purpose of the article is to study the current state of domestic legislation on the powers of government entities in waste management and present the institutional component of regional waste management systems through the prism of an integrated approach to its functioning. The analysis of the features of the current institutional structure of waste management and the duties and powers of system participants defined by the legislation at the national and local levels is carried out. The entities in the field of waste management involved in public administration are structured. Attention is focused on entities that do not have powers but are endowed with responsibilities and rights in the waste management system. We are convinced that the inconsistency of hierarchical communications causes dissonance in the actions of system elements. Therefore, it is important to organize information interrelation, which in form and content will allow us to make coordinated management decisions at different levels in time and provide a synergistic effect. The basic unit in the waste management system is reasoned. It is a region that has sufficient managerial levers. The hierarchical structure of the Regional Waste Management System is presented. The competent authorities that make decisions and perform local control functions in waste management are considered, in particular the powers of local self-government bodies. The features of the waste management system in the regions of Ukraine are determined. 
Waste Management System, region, institutional structures, entities in waste management, competencies of structural divisions, powers of government bodies 

Financial Policy

UDC 336.14:338.244.47; JEL Е62, H72, R51
Pshyk, B. (2022). Byudzhetna transparentnist' yak vazhlyva umova zmitsnennya finansovoyi samodostatnosti terytorial'nykh hromad [Budget transparency as an important condition for strengthening the financial self-sufficiency of territorial communities]. In Sotsial'no-ekonomichni problemy suchasnoho periodu Ukrayiny [Socio-Economic Problems of the Modern Period of Ukraine]: Vol. 156 (4) (pp. 34-42). DOI: [in Ukrainian].

Sources: 11

The article characterizes theoretical principles of the impact of budget transparency on ensuring the financial self-sufficiency of territorial communities determined by the ability of their authorities to finance in full the spending powers for solving social and cultural needs of the daily life of both individual residents and the community in general at the expense of the financial resources formed in local budgets. The content of a number of interrelated key characteristics (transparency, openness, timeliness, accountability, credibility) and types of budget transparency (political, economic, procedural, public, regulatory, institutional) is highlighted and revealed, taking into account the key areas of their manifestation. Attention is focused on the main problems of budgetary transparency of territorial communities: a decrease in trust and respect for the authorities on the part of citizens, a lack of open dialogue with representatives of the authorities, and a low level of readiness of society to participate in the decision-making process for solving local problems. The article justifies that ensuring the accountability of authorities and effective involvement of the community in the budget process requires the development and implementation of an effective communication strategy at the level of territorial communities, the creation of expert platforms, the spread of the practice of forming local budgets on a participatory basis, the development and launch of complex public finance management systems, and comprehensive evaluation of budget transparency, which would cover all local budgets. Particular attention is paid to highlighting the forms of citizen involvement in managing the finances of territorial communities in terms of the stages of the budget cycle and the possible effects of such participation. The article offers the following directions for strengthening the financial self-sufficiency of the budgets of territorial communities based on the increase in the level of budget transparency - increasing the loyalty and trust of economic agents in the activities of subnational governments, activating the financing of investment projects of local importance due to the increase in participation in the process of planning, formation, and use of local budget baskets, and optimization of the budgetary resources spending due to the growing interest of members of the territorial community in solving issues of local importance. 
budget transparency, budget process, decentralization, local budgets, territorial communities, financial self-sufficiency 

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